FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are many kinds of Li-ion batteries but all have one common catchword “lithium-ion”.
These batteries vary in performance, and mostly, it’s the cathode material makes their own  unique personalities.
 To learn more about their own characters and limitations, we clarify
 them by listing three of the most common lithium-ion batteries to compare.
Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4 or LFP)
LFP is often used to replace the lead acid battery. It is targeted for use in  areial work platform, floor machines, tractions, low speed vehicles and energy storage systems.
ILi-phosphate is more tolerant to full charge conditions and is less stressed than other lithium-ion systems if kept a high voltage for a pronged time. As trade-off, the lower voltage of 3.2V/cell reduces the specific energy. In addition, cold temperature reduces performance, and elevated storage temperature shortens the service life but is still better than lead acid, NiCd or NiMH. Li-phosphate has a higher self-discharge than other Li-ion batteries, which can cause balancing issues with aging.
ILi-phosphate is more tolerant to full charge conditions and is less stressed than other lithium-ion systems if kept a high voltage for a pronged time. As trade-off, the lower voltage of 3.2V/cell reduces the specific energy. In addition, cold temperature reduces performance, and elevated storage temperature shortens the service life but is still better than lead acid, NiCd or NiMH. Li-phosphate has a higher self-discharge than other Li-ion batteries, which can cause balancing issues with aging.
Lithium Iron Phosphate: LiFePO 4 , Graphite anode, Since 1996 Short form: LFP or Li-phosphate
Voltage, nominal
3.20V, 3.20V
    Specific energy (capacity)
120–170Wh/kg
Charge (C-rate)
1C typical; 3.65V peak; 3h charge time
    Discharge (C-rate)
1–3C continuous, 2.5V cut-off (lower that 2.5V causes damage)
    Cycle life
3500–5000 (related to depth of discharge, temperature)
     Thermal runaway
 270°C (518°F) Very safe battery even if fully charged
Applications
Portable and stationary needing high load currents and endurance
Comments
Very flat voltage discharge curve but low capacity. One of safest Li-Ions. Elevated self-discharge
Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCoO2 or LCO)
The battery consists of a graphite carbon anode and a cobalt oxide cathode. The cathode has a layered structure and during discharge, lithium ions will move from the anode to the cathode. The flow reverses on charge.The disadvantages of Li-cobalt are a relatively short life span, limited load capabilities and low thermal stability.Li-cobalt cannot be charged and discharged at a current higher than its rating. This means that an 18650 cell with 2,400mAh can only be charged and discharged at 2,400mA. For – cing a fast charge or applying a load higher than 2,400mA causes overheating and undue stress. For optimal fast charge, the manufacturer recommends a C-rate of 0.8C or 1920mA.
The mandatory battery protection circuit limits the charge and discharge rate to a safe The mandatory battery protection circuit limits the charge and discharge rate to a safe level of about 1C.
LCO’s high specific energy makes Li-cobalt the favored choice for mobile phones, laptops and digital cameras.
Lithium Cobalt Oxide: LiCoO2 (~60% Co ), Graphite anode, Since 1991 Short form: LCO or Li-cobalt
Voltage, nominal-3.60V
 Specific energy (capacity)-150–250Wh/kg
   Charge (C-rate)-0.8C, 1C maximum, 4.20V peak (most cells); 3h charge typical
Discharge (C-rate)  1C; 2.50V cut off
 Cycle life-500–1000, related to depth of discharge, load, temperature
 Thermal runaway-150°C (302°F). Full charge promotes thermal runaway
 Applications-Mobile phones, laptops, digital cameras
Comments-Very high specific energy, limited specific power. Cobalt is expensive. Serves as Energy Cell.
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide 
(LiNiMnCoO 2 or NMC)
TLeading battery manufacturers focus on a cathode combination of nickel-manganese -cobalt (NMC). Similar to Li-manganese, these systems can be tailored for high specific energy or high specific power, but not both. For example, NMC in an 18650 cell for moderate load condition has a capacity of about 2,800mAh and can deliver 4–5A; NMC in the same cell optimized for specific power has a capacity of only about 2,000mWh but delivers a continuous discharge current of 20A. A silicon-based anode will go to 4,000mAh but at reduced loading and shorter cycle life.
The secret of NMC lies in combining nickel and manganese. An analogy of this is table salt, in which the main ingredients of sodium and chloride are toxic on their own but mixing them serves as seasoning salt and food preserver. Nickel is known for its high specific energy but poor stability; manganese has the benefit of forming a spinel structure to achieve low internal resistance but offers a low specific energy. Combining the metals enhances each other strengths.
NMC is the battery of choice for power tools, e-bikes and other electric powertrains. The cathode combination of typically one-third nickel, one-third manganese and one-third cobalt offers a unique blend that also lowers raw material cost due to reduced cobalt content. Other combinations, such as NCM, CMN, CNM, MNC and MCN are also being offered in which the metal content of the cathode deviates from the 1/3 – 1/3 – 1/3 formu-la. Manufacturers keep the exact ratio a well-guarded secret.
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide: LiNiMnCoO 2 , Graphite anode, Since 2008 Short form: NMC (NCM, CMN, CNM, MNC, MCN are similar with different medal combination)
Voltage, nominal-3.60V, 3.70V
Specific energy (capacity)-150–220Wh/kg
     Charge (C-rate)-1C, 4.20V peak; 3h charge time
     Discharge (C-rate)-2C continuous; 2.50V cut-off
    Cycle life-1000–2000 (related to depth of discharge, temperature)
Thermal runaway-210°C (410°F) typical. High charge promotes thermal runaway
Applications-E-bikes, medical devices, EVs, industrial
Comments-Provides high capacity and high power. Serves as Hybrid Cell. This chemistry is often used to enhance Li-manganese.
Comparing
Wh/kg for
Different
Battery technologies8af7bfd7291316612cb28d8ffa1831b4
Summary comparison
LFP
LCO
NMC
Voltage, nominal
3.20V
3.60V
3.60V
Specific energy (capacity)
120–170Wh/kg
150–250Wh/kg
150–220Wh/kg
Charge (C-rate)
1C typical; 3.65V peak;
3h charge time
0.8C, 1C maximum,
4.20V peak (most cells);
3h charge typical
1C, 4.20V peak;
3h charge time
Discharge (C-rate)
1-3C continuous,
2.5V cut-off (lower than 2.5V causes damage)
1C; 2.50V cut off
2C continuous;
2.50V cut-off
Cycle life (times)
3500–5000 (re-lated to depth of discharge, tempe-rature)
500–1000, related to depth of dischar ge, load, tempera ture
1000–2000 (re – lated to depth of discharge, tempe – rature)
Thermal runaway
270°C (518°F) Very safe battery even if fully charged
150°C (302°F). Full charge promotes thermal runaway
210°C (410°F) typical. High charge promotes thermal runaway
Applications
Areial work platform floor machines, trac- tions, low speed EVs energy storage system
Mobile phones,
laptops, digital cameras
E-bikes, medical devices, EVs, indu- strial
Comments
Very flat voltage discharge curve but low capacity.
One of safest Li-Ions. Elevated self-discharge
Very high specific energy, limited spe- cific power. Cobalt
is expensive. Serves
as Energy Cell.
Provides high capa – city and high power. Serves as Hybrid Cell.
This chemistry is often used to
enhance Li-mang – anese.
Conclusions
For high specific energy, high safety and high cycle life applications all at reasonable cost are
important criterion when selecting your Lithium battery.
RoyPow believes the most suitable technology for applications of home, industry, or travelling – due to its high energy density,
long cycle life and low self-heating rate at a overall all attractive Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).
Lithium Iron Phospahte (LiFePO 4 or LFP) Li-phosphate has excellent safety and long life span but moderate specific energy and a lower voltage than other lithium-based batteries. LFP also has higher self-discharge compared to other lithium-ion systems.
Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCoO 2 or LCO) Li-cobalt excels on high specific
energy but offers only moderate performance of specific power, safety
and life span.
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO 2 or NMC) NMC has good overall performance and preferred for the electric vehicle and has the lowest self-heating rate. excels on specific energy.

CAE simulation technology has been widely used in various aspects of battery systems
>  In the battery pack, the CAE range covers structure, fluid mechanics, electromagnetics, etc.
BMS Specifications
▶ Individual Cell Monitoring & Balancing System
▶ SoC, SoH, Life Cycle Monitoring
▶ Self-diagnostics function(optional)
▶ Battery SOC Indicator
▶ Data Recording(optional)
▶ Adjustable & adaptive input/output power controller
▶ RS485 Communication
▶ Rapid Charging
▶ Smart Charging
▶ more function base on actual project requirement
Protection Circuit
▶ Current Sensor
▶ Voltage Sensor
▶ Temperature Sensor
▶ Circuit Breaker/ Fuse
▶ Over Charge Protection
▶ Over Discharge Protection
▶ High Temperature Protection
▶ Force Reset Button
▶ more function base on actual project
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FIVE-YEAR COST COMPARISON
The design life of the golf cart battery is 15 years and
we will offer you a five-year warranty.
ROYPOW golf cart battery can save up to 70% expenditures for you in five years. Above is the 5-year expenditure contrast table between ROYPOW lithium battery and lead-acid battery.

Download VERSION: 201901029 user’s manual here.

LithiumBatteryWarranty_2019

 

 

Lead-Acid Battery Maintenance 101

Regular golf cart battery maintenance is important to maximize your cart’s performance and get the longest life out of your battery pack.  Whether you have a Yamaha, EZGO, Club Car or another type of cart, here are our top battery maintenance suggestions to keep your lead-acid batteries running as long as possible.

1)  Cleaning: Prevent corrosion or build-up around battery terminals 

  • It is important that the top of each battery dry, clean and tight.

  • Clean your batteries with a bristle brush and a solution of baking soda and water.  Wear eye protection and rubber gloves to protect yourself- no jewelry. Spray terminals and cables with an anti-corrosive solution to help to prevent corrosion and rust.
  • Ideally, wipe the top of each battery clean and dry after each use to prevent corrosion and build up.

2)  Charging: After every use and periodically when in storage

  • Put the cart into “tow” before charging.  Most “run/tow” switches are found under the seat of the golf cart.
  • Charge for 8 to 10 hours with the proper golf cart battery charger for your cart.  Ensure that your charger’s voltage matches the voltage for your cart (ie. 48v charger for a 48v cart).
  • Best practice is to charge overnight after you are done with your cart for the day. Even if you only used the cart for 5 minutes, you’ll maximize the battery life of your cart by charging it after every use..
  • If you are not going to use your cart for more than 3 weeks, arrange to give it a charge during that time period.  Even when not in use, lead-acid batteries discharge a small amount over time.
  • Unless you have a new “smart charger” (ie. Lester Summit charger), your charger needs to be unplugged and plugged back in to restart the charging process.  When kept plugged in, smart chargers can detect that the battery level has dropped and that the cart needs to be charged. Most older chargers do not have this technology and need to be unplugged and plugged in again to initiate the charging process.
  • Lead-acid batteries will lose voltage over time, regardless of usage.  If left uncharged for extended periods of time, your voltage will drop below a safe amount and your battery charger will no longer work.
  • Failure to keep lead-acid batteries charged will result in shortening the life span of your battery pack- an expensive mistake.

3)  Refill Cells (for wet batteries): Top off with distilled water on a regular schedule

  • Fill battery cells by removing the caps on the top of each battery cell.  Use distilled, not tap, water to fill ¼ to ½ inch above the internal cell plates. With ¼ inch of water you’ll have to check your batteries more often, but at ½ inch you’ll likely have more acid accumulation on the tops of the batteries.
  • Do not overfill batteries as acid will leak out which can be incredibly dangerous and harmful.

  • Fill  battery cells only after charging. This will ensure that if you accidentally overfilled the batteries, acid will not boil over when heated during the charging process and spill onto your battery box and cart.

  • Sealed batteries are manufactured with gel above the cells and are securely covered.  They never have to be filled and almost guarantee a longer life-span as the internal levels are at the optimal amount at all times.  Ask us about our sealed battery options for your cart!

4)  Battery Life Span: Dependant on battery quality and proper maintenance

  • Drive the cart often and allow the batteries a full charge after every use.  Golf cart batteries like to be kept charged whether you are driving the cart often or infrequently.  You cannot overcharge batteries- your charger will shut off when the battery pack has reached full voltage.
  • Write on each battery or record the date of purchase for each battery in a secure location.  Depending on the quality of the battery, you should get 1-3 years for lower quality, 4-5 years for high quality and 6 plus when maintained in ideal conditions.

If you have any questions, please give us a call at 808-871-5051.  We are here to help!

Golf Cart Battery Voltage?

Electric Golf Carts:

An electric cart will have 4, 6 or 8 golf cart batteries. It will have a 36 volt or 48 volt electrical system.

 

How to Determine Golf Cart Voltage (36V or 48V):

1)      Lift up your cart seat to locate the battery compartment.

2)      Count the number of holes on the battery

  • Usually 3, 4 or 6 holes

3)      Multiply the number of holes by 2 to determine the golf cart battery voltage.

  • Each hole/cell is equal to 2 volts

4)      Multiply the golf cart battery voltage by the total number of golf cart batteries.

 

36 Volt Golf Cart Example (6V Batteries):

3 holes X 2 volts = 6 volt battery

6 volt battery X 6 total batteries = 36 volt system

 

48 Volt Golf Cart Example (8V Batteries):

4 holes X 2 volts = 8 volt battery

8 volt battery X 6 total batteries = 48 volt system

 

48 Volt Golf Cart Example (12V Batteries):

6 holes X 2 volts = 12 volt battery

12 volt battery X 4 total batteries = 48 volt system

If you have any questions, please give us a call at 808-871-5051.  We are here to help!

 

 

 

Club Car On-Board Computer (OBC) 

Have you found yourself wondering “What is the OBC on my 48 volt Club Car and what does it do?”

What does OBC stand for?

OBC is an abbreviation for On Board Computer.

What is the function of the OBC?

The OBC is a small computer that is wired into the golf cart. It’s purpose is to regulate the battery charge. As you use and drive your golf cart, the OBC records the amount of energy consumed and then directs the charger to replace exactly the amount of energy needed to fully replenish the batteries when you plug the charger. The OBC’s sole purpose is to regulate the charge and be the bridge between the charger and the batteries.

Do all golf carts have OBC’s? 

Not all golf carts have OBC’s. The OBC is unique to only 48 volt Club Cars.

How do I know if my OBC is working properly?

If the OBC on the Club Car is functional and the batteries are above 35 volts, you will hear a “click” from the relay inside the charger when the round charger plug is inserted into the cart.  Once fully inserted, the charger should come on and begin charging.

If you have any questions, please give us a call at 808-871-5051.  We are here to help!

How do I find the year and model of a EZ-GO Golf Cart?

 

First, locate the manufacturer’s code to determine the model of your EZ-GO cart:

The location of your manufacturer’s code identifies which EZGO model you have:

  • On the rear passenger side frame – RXV (2008 & up)
  • Inside the passenger side glove box – TXT (1996 & up)
  • Inside the passenger side glove box – Medalist (1994-1995)
  • Under the passenger side glove box – Marathon (1976-1993)
  • Under the driver side seat on the frame – Pre-Marathon (1965-1975)

On many of the newer EZ-GO’s, they will have the words “TXT”, “Freedom TXT”, “RXV” or “Freedom RXV” listed on the side of your golf cart.

Next, look at the manufacturer’s code to determine the year of your EZGO golf cart: 

The last two numbers of the manufacturer’s code identify the model year for EZ-GO’s manufactured from 1979 forward.

Here are two examples:

  • If the last two serial numbers of your EZ-GO manufacturer’s code are “92”, you own a 1992 EZ-GO Marathon.
  • If the last two serial numbers of your EZ-GO manufacturer’s code are “98”, you own a 1998 EZ-GO TXT.

If you have any questions, please give us a call at 808-871-5051.  We are here to help!

 

 

 

How do I find the year and model of my Club Car?

First, locate the serial number on your Club Car.

The serial number is located in one of three locations:

  • Inside or under the passenger side glove box – Precedent (2004 & up)
  • Under the passenger side glove box – DS (1981 & up)
  • Under the driver side seat on the frame – Pre-DS (1975-1980)

Next, take a look at the serial number to determine the model and year.

The first and second letter of the serial number is the model of your cart.

  • A = DS Electric
  • AA = DS Electric (48-volt)
  • AB = DS Electric (36-volt)
  • AC = DS Electric (48-volt)
  • AQ = DS Electric IQ (48-volt)
  • AG = DS Gas
  • DS = DS Power Drive (48-volt)
  • HA = DS Electric (36-volt)
  • PD = Precedent I2L Excel
  • PE = Precedent Electric 4 Passenger
  • PF = Precedent Gas
  • PG = Precedent Gas
  • PH = Precedent I2 Excel
  • PJ = Precedent I2 4 Passenger Excel
  • PR = Precedent Professional Gas
  • PQ = Precedent Electric IQ (48-volt)
  • PS = Precedent L2 Electric
  • PT = Precedent L2 Gas
  • PU = Precedent I2 Signature Excel
  • PY = Precedent Signature Gas
  • PZ = Precedent Signature Electric

 

The first two numbers of the serial number is the year of your cart.

Examples:

  • If the first three digits of the serial number are “A00”, it is a 2000 Club Car DS.
  • If the first four digits of the serial number are “PG09”, it is a 2009 Club Car Precedent.

If you have any questions, please give us a call at 808-871-5051.  We are here to help!

 

Download PDF, print, complete and email to finish warranty registration for your new Evolution golf cart.

Evolution Warranty Registration Form (Download Here)

 

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